When executing an Update SQL query on Excel, or MS Access, it may fail with the error: "Query is Corrupt". 

This is actually related to a bug introduced with an MS Office update on November 12, 2019

and Microsoft has released a fix for this in the following link:

Access error: "Query is corrupt"

Depending on the installed version of the Microsoft Access Database Engine Redistributable (eg. 2010 or 2016 installed), you need to download the respective file from the above link.

After installing the update, the issue should be resolved.